Tag Archives: river blindness

Curing River Blindness with Just One Dose

 

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Mabinty Koroma. Photo courtesy of Helen Keller International.

Reposted with permission from END in Africa

In June 2011, fourteen-year-old Mabinty Koroma was about to take the year-end exam in her middle school. One afternoon whilst in class, Mabinty noticed that she could barely see the writing on the blackboard. She went home that day thinking it was just temporary; but the following morning Mabinty was unable to read her notes and her vision was getting worse. “It became obvious that I couldn’t see well enough to take my exam and would have to drop out of school. My elder brother took me to various traditional healers in many villages in Moyamba district. We went to so many places that I can’t even remember all their names,” said Mabinty.

After a 15-month search for a traditional healer to restore Mabinty’s sight proved fruitless, her family was advised to take her to the eye hospital at Serabu, 40 kilometers from Bo, where Mabinty was attending school. In Serabu, there was no doctor to attend to Mabinty. However, the family decided to stay in Serabu rather than return to Bo.

Shortly thereafter, Sierra Leone’s Ministry of Health and Sanitation (MoHS), with support from Helen Keller International (HKI) and funding from USAID through the END in Africa project, started advocacy and social mobilization efforts to raise awareness about neglected tropical disease (NTD) control activities in the 12 provincial health districts, including Bo.

Using radio discussion programs and promotional jingles on mass drug administration and the use of preventive chemotherapy against NTDs such as lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis (“river blindness”) and soil-transmitted helminthes, the MoHS and HKI were working to spread the word that community residents could protect themselves and their children from such diseases just by taking medicine once a year.  With support from its partners, the MoHS distributes millions of doses of ivermectin and albendazole annually in all 14 health districts in Sierra Leone to combat those NTDs.

In addition to the radio promotions, local health workers held a series of community meetings prior to the treatment campaign to further sensitize the public about the benefits of taking treatment, and to encourage community leaders to get the word out to their respective communities.

Over the years, Mabinty and her family had heard some of the radio broadcasts about local NTD control efforts and the national treatment campaign. However, they’d always believed that only people living in the country’s rural areas got NTDs. Since they themselves had always lived in the city, they’d never imagined that they’d be at risk of getting any of those diseases. And so in the past, they’d simply ignored the messages about NTD control efforts, which had started several years earlier in all urban and rural districts of Sierra Leone, and had not gotten any of the annual treatments for lymphatic filariasis and soil transmitted helminthiasis that had been distributed in their community for the past five years.

Now as they tried to cope with her devastating vision loss, however, their attitudes were quickly changing and Mabinty’s family began to open their minds to the possibility that she may indeed be suffering from onchocerciasis, one of the NTDs found in Sierra Leone.  And so, when Mabinty and her father heard that annual NTD control efforts were about to begin again in Serabu, this time they were ready to listen.

“One evening, I was with my father when we heard a town crier saying the drugs for “oncho” and “Bigfut” (as it’s commonly called in the villages) had arrived at the health centre and that distribution would soon start,” she recalled.

After hearing the news, they decided that taking the medicine was worth a shot. Later that week, the community drug distributor visited Mabinty’s house and administered two drug regimens (ivermectin and albendazole) to her.

At first, Mabinty regretted having taken the drugs. “Twenty-four hours after taking the treatment, I felt sick and my eyes began to itch. I started scratching my body and kept on scratching for 3 days,” she said. Fortunately, the peripheral health unit staff in the village health center gave her a medication called Piriton and penicillin eye ointment to stop the itching.

After the initial discomfort from the treatment subsided, however, Mabinty discovered that what seemed to be a miracle had occurred. Her vision had improved and she was able to see clearly again.  So clearly that she was even able to return to her formal school in Bo, St. Andrews Junior Secondary School!

“If I hadn’t gotten my eyesight back, I would never have been able to sit for my Basic Education Certificate Examination,” said Mabinty with a smile. “I say thanks to the CDD and those who made the drugs available to me free of charge, even though I don’t know them personally or their organizations.”

Mabinty’s family is very happy to see her back in school. Her father is now a member of the village health committee and a very strong community organizer. Grateful for the recovery of her eyesight, he now wants to make sure that girls like Mabinty continue to receive annual treatments until the disease has been completely eliminated from the community.

More about END in Africa: Through the work of its END in Africa and END in Asia programs, FHI 360 is advancing USAID’s goal of contributing to the global elimination of NTD by reducing prevalence of seven diseases—lymphatic filariasis (elephantiasis), onchocerciasis (river blindness), schistosomiasis (snail fever), trachoma (blinding eye infection) and three soil-transmitted helminths (hookworm, roundworm, and whipworm). 

Project For Awesome with END7

 

END7 is excited to be part of the viral video development Project for Awesome. The Project for Awesome is an annual event that sprung out of various YouTube communities to support charities. Every year since 2007, thousands of people post videos to YouTube promoting charities on December 17th. They come together as a community to promote those videos and raise money.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=HPeUP_0cGUY

Project for Awesome is an inspirational movement that shows END7 supporters that they can use their voice as well as their creativity in helping to end NTDs. END7 wants to thank two individuals that showed their support for END7. Isabella Bernal and Erica Crouch both made videos explaining their support for eliminating NTDs. We couldn’t have said it better ourselves!

How a Nigerian General Became an Advocate for Stopping River Blindness

Lieutenant General (Ret.) Theophilus Yakubu (TY) Danjuma knows river blindness firsthand. As a Nigerian who grew up in a country with one of the highest rates of river blindness (also known as onchocerciasis) infection in the world, he has not only witnessed the devastation this disease can bring to families and communities, but has also suffered from the disease himself.

River blindness produces rashes, skin lesions and severe skin inflammation that can make the skin change color and lose elasticity. People suffering from the disease often face daily social humiliation and isolation, and infected children struggle to pay attention in school because of intense itching. River blindness, however, is aptly named. Its most debilitating symptoms are severe visual impairment and irreversible blindness.

General Danjuma’s experience with this disease began in the 1960s. While leading a company of soldiers in Nigeria, he was bitten by the Simulium black fly that transmits the worm larvae that cause river blindness. For two years, the larvae spread throughout his body, maturing into adult worms and releasing bacteria that eventually trigger an immune system response. He awoke one morning with swollen eyes and itchy, inflamed skin. General Danjuma successfully underwent two weeks of treatment and experienced no lasting symptoms, but says he has never forgotten the sight of his own skin sample under the microscope at the local clinic. He still shivers at the memory of tiny worms swimming in and out of view under the lens.

General Danjuma is the Grand Patron of an important NGO based in Jos, in Northern Nigeria. The NGO, The Mission to Save the Helpless, better known by its acronym MITOSATH” is well known to the health team in the Africa Region as an important partner of African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC). MITOSATH is also among the most active NGOs in Nigeria contributing to the control of river blindness other neglected tropical diseases.

Controlling River Blindness in Africa: Setting an Example

A young boy leads a man impacted by river blindness. Photo by Olivier Asselin.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

When river blindness control programs were first implemented in the 1970s, up to half of all adults in some hard-hit communities had gone blind from the disease. This tragedy caused many Africans to abandon their ancestral homes and livelihoods; the economic losses were estimated at US$30 million. The first Onchocerciasis Control Programme focused primarily on spraying insecticide over infected areas in order to minimize the prevalence of the black fly, preventing transmission of the parasitic worms from person to person, and eventually incorporated treatment with Ivermectin, the drug that treats river blindness, when it became available.

With the help of the World Health Organization and the World Bank in 1995, this program was expanded and renamed the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC). Rather than attempting to control the black fly population, APOC sought to control the parasitic worms in humans through community-directed treatment with Ivermectin in 19 countries. Treatment with Ivermectin successfully kills the worms in the people who have them, thereby disrupting transmission of the disease.

Merck & Co. donates Ivermectin to Nigeria (and other countries in need), and APOC trains volunteers to distribute the drug in communities. Today, APOC provides Ivermectin to more than 96 percent of endemic communities in Nigeria, reaching more than 23 million people. Until everyone is treated, however, the risks of re-infection and new outbreaks remain. River blindness is still present in most Nigerian states, including Taraba state where General Danjuma was born. The disease continues to deeply impact communities and the lifetime productivity of the 31 million Nigerians at risk.

Now a successful businessman and politician, General Danjuma’s personal experience with river blindness and the success of MITOSATH and APOC motivated him to donate US$1 million to the program in 2010. With his donation, he hopes to invigorate interest in public health challenges in rural Africa. General Danjuma noted that, “these are not the neglected diseases of tropical Africa, but rather the diseases of neglected people.”

General Danjuma’s crusade to raise the profile of rural health issues has already gained momentum. Following his example, in 2011, the government of Nigeria pledged an additional US$5 million to APOC to assist with its control efforts. General Danjuma hopes that other countries and the private sector will join the movement to eliminate this debilitating disease once and for all.

 

In March 2012, General Danjuma participated in a panel discussion at the Center for Strategic and International Studies. Read our blog post on that event here.

 

UK NGO sets their sights on river blindness

Sightsavers, a UK-based NGO that addresses preventable blindness in the developing world and contributors to End the Neglect, is this year’s Financial Times (FT) seasonal appeal recipient. Sgithsavers will receive donations from British readers who contribute to the FT appeal, which will run from November 21 – mid-January. The UK government has also agreed to match individual donations made to the appeal. Click here for more information on the appeal. Below an excerpt on the current state of river blindness published in FT:

“The river in Nigeria’s poor, remote northern state of Zamfara has always played a central part in the 70-year-old’s life. He and his friends swam in it as boys “until our eyes were red”. It is a vital source of water for homes, livestock and crops in Mr Adamu’s village of Birninwaje, a fishing and farming community of 3,000 people, where he was for many years the traditional leader. It is also the source of his blindness. River blindness is endemic in these parts. The parasitical disease is named after the black flies that live near flowing waterways such as the Zamfara – and across sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and parts of the Arabian peninsula – and transmit one of the world’s leading causes of blindness.” Click here to read the full article. Also, check Jeremiah Norris’ (Director, Center for Science in Public Policy, Hudson Institute) Letter to the Editor in response to this piece.